Author(s): Celedn G, Rodriguez I, Espaa J, Escobar J, Lissi E
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Abstract We have investigated the influence of the free radical initiator characteristics on red blood cell lipid peroxidation, membrane protein modification, and haemoglobin oxidation. 2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH) and 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACV) were employed as free radical sources. Both azo-compounds are water-soluble, although ACV presents a lowed hydrophilicity, evaluated from octanol/water partition constants. At physiological pH, they are a di-cation and a di-anion, respectively. AAPH and ACV readily oxidise purified oxyhemoglobin in a very efficient free radical-mediated process, particularly for ACV-derived radicals, where nearly one heme moiety was modified per radical introduced into the system, suggesting that negatively charged radicals react preferentially at the heme group. The radicals derived from both azo-compounds lead to different oxidation products. Methemoglobin, hemichromes and choleglobin were produced in AAPH-promoted hemoglobin oxidation, while ACV-derived radicals predominantly form hemichromes, with very low production of choleglobin. Red cell damage was evaluated at the level of hemoglobin and membrane constituents modification, and was expressed in terms of free radical doses. Before the onset of the lytic process, ACV leads to more lipid peroxidation than AAPH, and induces a moderate oxidation of intracellular Hb. This intracellular oxidation is markedly increased if ACV hydrophilicity is decreased by lowering the pH. On the other hand, AAPH-derived radicals are considerable more efficient in promoting protein band 3 modification and cell lysis, without significant intracellular hemoglobin oxidation. These results show that the lytic process is not triggered by lipid peroxidation or hemichrome formation, and suggest that membrane protein modification is the relevant factor leading to red blood cell lysis.
This article was published in Free Radic Res
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry