Author(s): Rye DB
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Abstract The pedunculopontine (PPN) region of the upper brainstem is recognized as a critical modulator of activated behavioral states such as wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The expression of REM sleep-related physiology (e.g. thalamocortical arousal, ponto-geniculate-occipital (PGO) waves, and atonia) depends upon a subpopulation of PPN neurons that release acetylcholine (ACh) to act upon muscarinic receptors (mAChRs). Serotonin's potent hyperpolarization of cholinergic PPN neurons is central to present working models of REM sleep control. A growing body of experimental evidence and clinical experience suggests that the responsiveness of the PPN region, and thereby modulation of REM sleep, involves closely adjacent glutamatergic neurons and alternate afferent neurotransmitters. Although many of these afferents are yet to be defined, dopamine-sensitive GABAergic pathways exiting the main output nuclei of the basal ganglia and adjacent forebrain nuclei appear to be the most conspicuous and the most likely to be clinically relevant. These GABAergic pathways are ideally sited to modulate the physiologic hallmarks of REM sleep differentially (e.g. atonia versus cortical activation), because each originates from a functionally unique forebrain circuit and terminates in a unique pattern upon brain stem neurons with unique membrane characteristics. Evidence is reviewed that changes in the quality, timing, and quantity of REM sleep that characterize narcolepsy, REM sleep behavior disorder, and neurodegenerative and affective disorders (depression and schizophrenia) reflect 1) changes in responsiveness of cells in the PPN region governed by these afferents; 2) increase or decrease in PPN cell number; or 3) mAChRs mediating increased responsiveness to ACh derived from the PPN. Auditory evoked potentials and acoustic startle responses provide means independent from recording sleep to assess pathophysiologies affecting the PPN and its connections and thereby complement investigations of their role in affecting daytime functions (e.g. arousal and attention).
This article was published in Sleep
and referenced in Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy