Author(s): Foey AD, Brennan FM
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Abstract In chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, joint macrophages/monocytes are the major source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Little is understood regarding the signalling pathways which determine the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10). Two pathways integral to macrophage function are the protein kinase C (PKC)- and the cAMP-dependent pathways. In this report, we have investigated the involvement of PKC and cAMP in the production of TNF-alpha and IL-10 by peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. The utilization of the PKC inhibitors Go6983, Go6976 and RO-32-0432 demonstrated a role for conventional PKCs (alpha and beta) in the production of TNF-alpha in response to stimulation by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin. PKC stimulation resulted in the downstream activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which differentially regulates TNF-alpha and IL-10. The addition of cAMP however, suppressed activation of this MAPK and TNF-alpha production. Cyclic-AMP augmented IL-10 production and cAMP response element binding protein activation upon stimulation by PMA/ionomycin. In addition, cAMP activated PKCzeta; inhibition of which, by a dominant negative adenovirus construct, selectively suppressed IL-10 production. These observations suggest that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are differentially regulated by PKC isoforms; TNF-alpha being dependent on conventional PKCs (alpha and beta) whereas IL-10 is regulated by the cAMP-regulated atypical PKCzeta.
This article was published in Immunology
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology