alexa COPD as a systemic disease.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Allergy & Therapy

Author(s): Agusti A, Soriano JB

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Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an important and increasing burden throughout the world. Classically, COPD has been considered a respiratory condition only, mainly caused by tobacco smoking. However, COPD has important manifestations beyond the lungs, the so-called systemic effects. These include unintentional weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and depression, among others. Low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is one of the key mechanisms underlying these systemic effects. Because these extra-pulmonary manifestations of COPD are common and/or may have significant implications for the patient wellbeing and prognosis, they warrant systematic screening and appropriate management in order to provide optimal medical care. This article was published in COPD and referenced in Journal of Allergy & Therapy

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