Author(s): Rai A, Mohapatra SC, Shukla HS
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Abstract The results of several studies indicate that a diet rich in fresh vegetables protects against several common epithelial neoplasms. This probable effect has been related to specific micronutrients contained in vegetables. In the present case-control study a systematic assessment of the relationship between vegetable intake and the risk of gallbladder cancer has been undertaken. The study is of particular interest in order to better understand the quantifying effect of vegetable consumption with regard to gallbladder cancer. One hundred and fifty-three patients with gallbladder cancer and 153 controls with gallstone disease were included. Each patient's consumption of vegetables was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire. The frequency of vegetable consumption was divided into three levels: > or =3 days/week, 1-2 days/week and no or rare consumption. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of vegetable intake. Odds ratios and 95\% confidence intervals were computed for subsequent levels of vegetable consumption compared with the high level of consumption. A low consumption of vegetables showed an increase in odds ratio for gallbladder cancer for almost all the vegetables studied. A significant inverse trend was observed for green leafy vegetables and gallbladder cancer. An inverse association was observed for amaranth with an OR of 3.45 for the low vs. high level of consumption. Corresponding values were 2.14 for spinach, 1.86 for bathua, 1.02 for bengalgram leaves, 2.26 for cabbage, 3.06 for fenugreek leaves, 1.95 for mustard leaves and 1.44 for radish leaves. An inverse relationship between the risk of gallbladder cancer and the level of vegetable consumption was observed.
This article was published in Eur J Cancer Prev
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology