Author(s): Peters AT, Peckham AD, Stange JP, Sylvia LG, Hansen NS,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is characterized by impairments in cognitive functioning, both during acute mood episodes and periods of euthymia, which interfere with functioning. Cognitive functioning is typically assessed using laboratory-based tests, which may not capture how cognitive dysfunction is experienced in real-life settings. Little is known about the specific illness characteristics of bipolar disorder that contribute to cognitive dysfunction in everyday life. METHODS: Participants met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (n = 68) in a depressed or euthymic state. Everyday executive functioning was evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Rating Scale (FrSBe). Participants completed clinician rated measures of mood state (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale), prior illness course and co-morbidities (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), as well as self-report measures of psychotropic medication use and medical co-morbidity. RESULTS: Individuals in this study reported significant impairment in every domain of executive functioning. These deficits were associated with a multitude of illness factors, some directly impacted by mood symptoms and others shaped by illness chronicity, psychiatric comorbidity, medical co-morbidity, and medication use. DISCUSSION: Executive functioning problems observed in everyday functioning in bipolar disorder are not entirely mood-state dependent. Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction should be considered an important adjunctive treatment for many individuals with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Psychiatr Res
and referenced in Bipolar Disorder: Open Access