Author(s): PoudelTandukar K, BertoneJohnson ER, Palmer PH, Poudel KC
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been frequently associated with chronic inflammation as well as depression. C-reactive protein (CRP) is positively associated with depression in people without HIV infection. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between CRP and depression in a cohort of HIV-positive people. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people (181 men and 135 women) aged 18-60years residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The latex agglutination turbidimetric method was used to measure serum CRP concentrations and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-I method was used to measure depression, with a cut off of ⩾20 indicating likely depression. The relationship between CRP concentrations and depression symptoms was assessed using both multiple linear regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for potential socio-demographic, cardiovascular, life-style, and HIV-related clinical and treatment confounding factors. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent participants (men: 23\%; women: 29\%) met criteria for depression. In multiple regression analysis, the authors observed a linear relation between serum CRP concentrations and BDI score (beta for 1 unit change in ln(CRP)=1.13, p=0.001) in HIV-positive participants. In a logistic regression analysis, participants with serum CRP levels>3mg/L had a 2.3-fold higher odds of depression symptoms compared to those with serum CRP level⩽3mg/L (p=0.005). In analyses stratified by sex, associations were stronger in men than in women. For example, CRP>3mg/L was associated with a 3.6-fold higher odds of depression in men (p=0.002), while in women the odds ratio was 1.7 (p=0.33). CONCLUSION: We found a linear relationship between serum CRP concentrations and depression symptoms score in HIV-positive people, and evidence that risk of depression is elevated among HIV-positive men with a high level of inflammation (CRP>3mg/L). Further prospective study to confirm the role of inflammation in depression among HIV-positive people is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Brain Behav Immun
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology