alexa Current distribution under electrodes in relation to stimulation current and skin blood flow: are modern electrodes really providing the current distribution during stimulation we believe they are?
Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

Journal of Novel Physiotherapies

Author(s): Petrofsky J, Schwab E, Cneo M, George J, Kim J,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Carbonized rubber electrodes were tested extensively when they were first developed 30 years ago, but modern carbonized rubber electrodes have not received the type of scrutiny that the first electrodes received. Modern electrodes differ from the original electrodes in that they come with a self-adhesive electrode gel called hydrogel as part of their composition. The present study was undertaken to examine the current distribution and impedance characteristics of five brands of carbonized rubber electrodes and to examine the current distribution between electrodes during electrical stimulation in six subjects. Several different electrode sizes were tested between 3 and 10 cm. The current flow between the electrodes was determined by measuring the voltage across the skin on human subjects in 15 discrete locations between the electrodes. Blood flow was also measured between the electrodes with a laser Doppler flow meter to assess the physiological effect of current distribution on the skin at several skin temperatures. The results of these studies showed that at low currents, such as is used in TENS, very little current is actually applied through the skin due to the high impedance of the electrodes. At current levels normally used for electrical stimulation for functional movement, while current flow is better in most electrodes, it is very uneven, resulting in high current density in the centre of the electrodes and a fall off of at least 50\% in current intensity at the edges of the electrode. There was very little difference in current density between small and large electrodes due to the high current density in the centre. Skin blood flow altered the movement of current between the electrodes and also may contribute to electrode performance. The implication of these studies is that electrode design needs to be altered for better current distribution, especially at low stimulation currents. This article was published in J Med Eng Technol and referenced in Journal of Novel Physiotherapies

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • 5th International Conference on Physiotherapy
    November 27-28, 2017 Dubai, UAE

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords