Author(s): Puneet P, Perera MT, Mirza DF
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Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents one of the most common cancers worldwide with rising incidence in developed countries. The best treatment options with curative intent for patients with HCC are liver resection or transplantation, although the role of hepatic ablative therapies has also been recognized. Surgical resection has emerged as the primary treatment in carefully selected patients of HCC. With the advances in surgical and radiological techniques, the perioperative mortality has been reduced to less than 5 \% depending on the extent of resection and hepatic reserve. The role of liver transplantation (LT) as the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with HCC has evolved in the last few decades. Historically, the Milan criteria have been considered the gold standard for selecting patients; more expanded selection criteria to include those with more advanced tumors have been implemented in recent years. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged as a way to expand the donor pool and has influenced the role of transplantation for HCC, especially in communities with little access to cadaveric transplantation. Salvage transplantation is an alternative option as it allows a window for the biologically less favorable lesions to declare tumor behavior. Salvage transplantation also decreases the burden on transplant resources. Sirolimus, a novel immunosuppressant drug with anti-tumor effect, may have a role in limiting the severity of recurrent disease after transplantation for HCC, and play an important role in the future management of transplant recipients. This article examines the literature on current status of management of HCC.
This article was published in Indian J Gastroenterol
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research