Author(s): Cinalli G, Cappabianca P, de Falco R, Spennato P, Cianciulli E,
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Abstract Since the introduction of the modern, smaller endoscopes in the 1960s, neuroendoscopy has become an expanding field of neurosurgery. Neuroendoscopy reflects the tendency of modern neurosurgery to aim towards minimalism; that is, access and visualization through the narrowest practical corridor and maximum effective action at the target point with minimal disruption of normal tissue. Transventricular neuroendoscopy allows the treatment of several pathologies inside the ventricular system, such as obstructive hydrocephalus and intra-/paraventricular tumors or cysts, often avoiding the implantation of extracranial shunts or more invasive craniotomic approaches. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal surgery allows the treatment of pathologies of the sellar and parasellar region, with the advantage of a wider vision of the surgical field, less traumatism of the nasal structures, greater facility in the treatment of possible recurrences and reduced complications. However, an endoscope may be used to assist microsurgery in virtually any kind of neurosurgical procedures (endoscope-assisted microsurgery), particularly in aneurysm and tumor surgery. Basic principles of optical imaging and the physics of optic fibers are discussed, focusing on the neuroendoscope. The three main chapters of neuroendoscopy (transventricular, endonasal transphenoidal and endoscope-assisted microsurgery) are reviewed, concerning operative instruments, surgical procedures, main indications and results.
This article was published in Expert Rev Med Devices
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy