Author(s): Yan X, Wu L, Li B, Meng X, Dai H,
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Abstract Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), which have recently been noted to protect against atherosclerosis development in mice. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), a member of blueberry ACN family, can inhibit the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of C3G on VSMC apoptosis and migration remain unclear. This study was thus conducted to examine whether and how C3G affected the apoptosis and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) challenged by TNF-α. Primary cultured RASMCs were pretreated with C3G (25, 50 or 100 μM) for 2 h and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for additional 24 h. Our results illustrated that C3G pretreatment induced significant apoptosis in TNF-α-stimulated RASMCs in a dose-dependent way, which was accompanied with increased cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. Moreover, RASMC migration was enhanced by TNF-α, but markedly suppressed by C3G pretreatment. The expressions and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were inhibited by C3G. In addition, TNF-α-enhanced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65 and phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) in RASMCs were attenuated by C3G. In summary, our study reveals that C3G can induce significant apoptosis in TNF-α-treated RASMCs and markedly inhibit their migration.
This article was published in Cardiovasc Toxicol
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products