Author(s): Holstein A, Beil W, Kovacs P
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: The cytochrome P4502C enzymes account for the metabolism of approximately 20\% of therapeutic drugs including certain oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on the effect of CYP2C enzymes on metabolism of sulphonylureas (SUs), meglitinides, and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) discussing their impact on pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and toxicological profiles. Pharmacogenetic aspects reflecting individual gene variants and variable drug effects are also considered. EXPERT OPINION: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 enzymes (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) influence the glycaemic response to SUs and impair their substrate metabolism. Restricted data from small-sized studies with heterogenous definitions of hypoglycaemia revealed no clear association between CYP2C9 genotypes and the risk of hypoglycaemia. Functional polymorphisms of CYP2C8- and CYP2C9 drug metabolizing genes affect markedly pharmacokinetics of meglitinides. Compared to wild-type carriers, patients treated with TZDs and carrying the common CYP2C8*3 and *4 variants showed a reduced glycaemic control. The strong CYP2C8 and OATP1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil increases substantially the plasma concentrations of repaglinide and TZDs. Numerous metabolic drug interactions exist between SUs and commonly prescribed drugs, especially anti-infectives. The complex pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic properties and the unfavourable short and long term risk profile of glibenclamide and glimepiride raise the question whether their use can be justified any longer.
This article was published in Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta