Author(s): Kishimoto W, Hiroi T, Shiraishi M, Osada M, Imaoka S,
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Abstract mRNA of cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) is expressed in the brain, but little is known about the enzymatic properties of P450c21 in the brain. In the present study, we showed, by using various recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D enzymes and anti-CYP2D4- or P450c21-specific antibodies, that rat brain microsomal steroid 21-hydroxylation is catalyzed not by P450c21, but by CYP2D isoforms. Rat CYP2D4 and human CYP2D6, which are the predominant CYP2D isoforms in the brain, possess 21-hydroxylation activity for both progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. In rat brain microsomes, these activities were not inhibited by anti-P450c21 antibodies, but they were effectively inhibited by the CYP2D-specific chemical inhibitor quinidine and by anti-CYP2D4 antibodies. mRNA and protein of CYP2D4 were expressed throughout the brain, especially in cerebellum, striatum, pons, and medulla oblongata, whereas the mRNA and protein levels of P450c21 were extremely low or undetectable. These results support the idea that CYP2D4, not P450c21, works as steroid 21-hydroxylase in the brain. Allopregnanolone, a representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor modulator, was also hydroxylated at the C-21 position by recombinant CYP2D4 and CYP2D6. Rat brain microsomal allopregnanolone 21-hydroxylation was inhibited by fluoxetine with an IC(50) value of 2 microm, suggesting the possibility that the brain CYP2D isoforms regulate levels of neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone, and that this regulation is modified by central nervous system-active drugs such as fluoxetine.
This article was published in Endocrinology
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics