alexa Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the development of CYP biosensors.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Author(s): Schneider E

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Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a large family of heme-containing monooxygenase enzymes involved in the first-pass metabolism of drugs and foreign chemicals in the body. CYP reactions, therefore, are of high interest to the pharmaceutical industry, where lead compounds in drug development are screened for CYP activity. CYP reactions in vivo require the cofactor NADPH as the source of electrons and an additional enzyme, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), as the electron transfer partner; consequently, any laboratory or industrial use of CYPs is limited by the need to supply NADPH and CPR. However, immobilizing CYPs on an electrode can eliminate the need for NADPH and CPR provided the enzyme can accept electrons directly from the electrode. The immobilized CYP can then act as a biosensor for the detection of CYP activity with potential substrates, albeit only if the immobilized enzyme is electroactive. The quest to create electroactive CYPs has led to many different immobilization strategies encompassing different electrode materials and surface modifications. This review focuses on different immobilization strategies that have been used to create CYP biosensors, with particular emphasis on mammalian drug-metabolizing CYPs and characterization of CYP electrodes. Traditional immobilization methods such as adsorption to thin films or encapsulation in polymers and gels remain robust strategies for creating CYP biosensors; however, the incorporation of novel materials such as gold nanoparticles or quantum dots and the use of microfabrication are proving advantageous for the creation of highly sensitive and portable CYP biosensors.

This article was published in BiosensBioelectron and referenced in Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

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