Author(s): Wanichkul T, Han S, Huang RP, Sidell N
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands can affect the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cytokines related to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. DESIGN: In vitro study to determine whether PPARs are expressed in human endometrial cells and determine the effects of various PPAR-gamma ligands on IL-6 and other cytokine expression in these cells. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Women presenting for infertility workup. INTERVENTION(S): Endometrial cell cultures were treated with PPAR-gamma ligands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Interleukin-6, IL-8, colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and macrophage chemotactic factor (MCP-1) protein secretion, messenger RNA expression of IL-6, PPAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma. RESULT(S): Using a human endometrial cell line (EM42), as well as primary stromal and epithelial endometrial cells, we show the presence of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these cells. PPAR-gamma ligands stimulated IL-6 secretion and induced enhancement of IL-6 mRNA levels. These ligands also stimulated the secretion of IL-8 and CSF-1. CONCLUSION(S): PPAR-gamma may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis related to the production of IL-6 and some other cytokines.
This article was published in Fertil Steril
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy