Author(s): Skarsvik S, Puranen J, Honkanen J, Roivainen M, Ilonen J,
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Abstract Enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackie virus B4 (CVB4), are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We wanted to compare the characteristics of T-cell immune response to CVB4 in children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children with and without HLA risk-associated haplotypes (HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8) for type 1 diabetes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultured with CVB4 and analyzed for cytokine and chemokine receptors by flow cytometry and for expression of transcription factors Tbet and GATA-3 by RT-PCR and Western blot. Culture supernatants were analyzed for secretion of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma). In children with type 1 diabetes, a decreased percentage of T-cells expressed CCR2, CXCR6, interleukin (IL)-18R, and IL-12Rbeta2-chain after in vitro stimulation with CVB4 in comparison with healthy children with or without HLA risk genotype. Moreover, we found that children with type 1 diabetes had decreased IFN-gamma secretion and expression of Tbet, both on mRNA and protein level, in CVB4-stimulated PBMCs. Accordingly, children with type 1 diabetes show an impaired type 1 immune response against CVB4 compared with healthy children. This may lead to a delayed clearance of the virus and, at least partly, explain why children with type 1 diabetes may be more prone to CVB4 infections and related complications, such as beta-cell damage.
This article was published in Diabetes
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology