Author(s): Keller JN, Huang FF, Markesbery WR
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Abstract Neuron death and neuron degeneration occur in the CNS during the course of aging. Although multiple cellular alterations transpire during the aging process, those that mediate age-associated neuron death have not been identified. Recent evidence implicates oxidative stress as a possible means of neuron death and neuron degeneration during aging. In the present study, we demonstrate a marked decrease in multicatalytic proteasome activity in the spinal cord of Fisher 344 rats at 12, 24 and 28 months, compared with spinal cord tissue from 3-week- and 3-month-old animals. Application of oxidative injury (FeSO(4)) or the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal decreases multicatalytic proteasome activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner in a motor neuron cell line. Loss of multicatalytic proteasome activity occurs before the loss of multicatalytic proteasome immunoreactivity, with FeSO(4)- and 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated decreases ameliorated by the application of a cell permeable form of the antioxidant glutathione. Application of multicatalytic proteasome inhibitors, but not inhibitors of lysosomal proteases, induced neuron death that was attenuated by the caspase inhibitors benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-(O-methyl) fluoromethyl ketone or N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-Cho (aldehyde). Together, these data suggest that multicatalytic proteasome inhibition occurs during aging of the spinal cord, possibly as the result of oxidative stress, and that multicatalytic proteasome inhibition may be causally related to neuron death.
This article was published in Neuroscience
and referenced in Journal of Developing Drugs