alexa Defective expression of HRK is associated with promoter methylation in primary central nervous system lymphomas.


Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion

Author(s): Nakamura M, Ishida E, Shimada K, Nakase H, Sakaki T,

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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Recently, it has been reported that expression of the HRK gene was significantly reduced by hypermethylation in astrocytic tumors. Our aim is to verify the alterations in the HRK gene in primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs). METHODS: We analyzed the hypermethylation status and expression of the gene and 12q13.1 loss of heterozygosity in 31 PCNSLs. RESULTS: A total of 13 PCNSLs (31\%) demonstrated hypermethylation in either the promoter or exon 1; loss of HRK expression was immunohistochemically observed in 9 tumors and was significantly associated with promoter methylation. In addition, higher apoptotic counts were associated with HRK positivity. PCNSLs with HRK methylation also showed methylation of multiple genes, such as p14ARF, p16INK4a, RB1, p27Kip1 and O6-MGMT. Patients with tumors demonstrating concurrent methylation of more than half of their genes demonstrated significantly poorer survival and earlier recurrence. Hypermethylation of the HRK promoter alone was not associated with overall outcome, but relapse-free survival was significantly shorter. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that transcriptional repression of HRK is caused by promoter hypermethylation in PCNSL, and that the loss of HRK associated with the methylation profile of other genes is a potential step in the modulation of cellular death by apoptosis during PCNSL tumorigenesis. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel. This article was published in Oncology and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion

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