Author(s): Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Liotta F, Maggi E, Romagnani S
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Abstract T helper (Th) 17 cells represent a third effector arm of CD4 T cells and complement the function of the Th1 and Th2 cell lineages. Here, we provide an overview of the transcription factors, cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine and chemokine receptors that characterize the Th17 cell phenotype. Data relevant for human Th17 cells are emphasized, with a focus on the function of two markers that have recently been associated with human Th17 cells, CD161 and interleukin-4-induced gene 1 (IL4I1). Also considered is the basis of Th17 cell plasticity towards the Th1 lineage, and we suggest that this plasticity together with the limited expansion of Th17 cells in response to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering accounts for the rarity of human Th17 cells in inflamed tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Trends Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Arthritis