Author(s): Govindaswami M, Brown SA, Yu J, Zhu H, Bishop PD,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The authors present evidence that the delta opioid receptor agonist Deltorphin-D(variant) (Delt-D(var)) and hibernating woodchuck plasma (HWP), but not summer-active woodchuck plasma (SAWP), can provide significant neuroprotection from focal ischemia in mice by a mechanism that relies in part on reducing nitric oxide (NO) release in ischemic tissue. METHODS: Cerebral ischemia was produced in wild-type and NO synthase-deficient (NOS(-/-)) mice by transient, 1-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral deficits were determined at 22 hours and infarct volume was assessed at 24 hours after MCAO. Mice were treated with saline or Delt-D(var) at 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, or 200 microL of HWP or SAWP. NOS(-/-) mice were treated with either saline or Delt-D(var) at 4.0 mg/kg. NO release was determined using an N9 microglial cell line pretreated with delta- or mu-specific opioids and HWP or SAWP prior to activation with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma. Nitrate in the medium was measured as an indicator of NO production. RESULTS: Infusion of Delt-D(var) or HWP (but not SAWP) decreased infarct volume and improved behavioral deficits following 1 hour of MCAO and 24 hours of reperfusion. In NOS(-/-) mice, endothelial NOS(+/+) is required to provide Delt-D(var)-induced neuroprotection. Delt-D(var) and HWP dose-dependently decreased NO release in cell culture, while SAWP and other delta- and mu-specific opioids did not. CONCLUSIONS: Delt-D(var) and HWP, but not SAWP, are effective neuroprotectant agents in a mouse model of transient MCAO. In cell culture, the mechanism of this ischemic neuroprotection may rely in part on their ability to block NO release.
This article was published in Acad Emerg Med
and referenced in Virology & Mycology