Author(s): Rossi RC, Rossi NJ, Rossi NJ, Yamashita HK, Pignatari SS
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Abstract BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the dental and skeletal variables associated with disturbances of craniofacial development in oral-breathing (OB) individuals and the probability that these variables are related to this condition. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective case-control study of 1596 patients divided into three groups of age n1 5-12, n2 13-18, and n3 19-57 years. Radiographic, clinical, and models data were analyzed. The control group was consisted of nasal breathing (NB) individuals. Statistical analyses of the qualitative data were performed with x (2) test to identify associations, and odds ratio (OR) tests were performed for the variables that the chi-square test (x (2)) identified an association. RESULTS: In the descriptive analysis of the data, we observed that the class II malocclusion was the most frequent in the total sample, but when divided by age group and mode of breathing, there is a random division of these variables. In n1 group, class II, (OR = 2.02) short and retruded mandible (SM and RM) (OR = 1.65 and1.89) were associated with OB and it was considered a risk factor. In n2 group, class II (OR = 1.73), SM (OR = 1.87) and increased lower anterior height (ILAFH) (OR = 1.84) seemed to be associated and to be risk factors for OB. In the n1 group, decreased lower anterior facial height (DLAFH) and brachycephalic facial pattern (BP) seemed to be associated with NB and a protective factor against oral breathing. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that dental and skeletal factors are associated with OB in children, and it seems that it becomes more severe until adolescence. But adults showed no associations between OB and skeletal factors, only in dental variables, indicating that there is no cause-effect relationship between the dental and skeletal factors and OB. The treatment of nose breathing patient should be multidisciplinary, since OB remains even when dental and skeletal factors slow down.
This article was published in Prog Orthod
and referenced in Otolaryngology: Open Access