Author(s): Gardner OS, Dewar BJ, Earp HS, Samet JM, Graves LM
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma ligands have recently been shown to induce activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn phosphorylate PPARs, thereby affecting transcriptional activity. However, the mechanism for PPAR ligand-dependent MAPK activation is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that various PPARalpha (nafenopin) and gamma (ciglitazone and troglitazone) agonists rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and/or p38 phosphorylation in rat liver epithelial cells (GN4). The selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors, PD153035 and ZD1839 (Iressa), abolished PPARalpha and gamma agonist-dependent Erk activation. Consistent with this, PPAR agonists increased tyrosine autophosphorylation of the EGFR as well as phosphorylation at a putative Src-specific site, Tyr845. Experiments with the Src inhibitor, PP2, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine revealed critical roles for Src and reactive oxygen species as upstream mediators of EGFR transactivation in response to PPAR ligands. Moreover, PPARalpha and gamma ligands increased Src autophosphorylation as well as kinase activity. EGFR phosphorylation, in turn, led to Ras-dependent Erk activation. In contrast, p38 activation by PPARalpha and gamma ligands occurred independently of Src, oxidative stress, the EGFR, and Ras. Interestingly, PPARalpha and gamma agonists caused rapid activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase or Pyk2; Pyk2 as well as p38 phosphorylation was reduced by intracellular Ca2+ chelation without an observable effect on EGFR and Erk activation, suggesting a possible role for Pyk2 as an upstream activator of p38. In summary, PPARalpha and gamma ligands activate two distinct signaling cascades in GN4 cells leading to MAPK activation.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology