Author(s): Bell JG, McEvoy J, Tocher DR, Sargent JR
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Abstract Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four purified diets supplemented with both vitamin E and the carotenoid astaxanthin (Ax) (+E, +Ax), or supplemented with either vitamin E or Ax (-E, +Ax and +E, -Ax) or deficient in both vitamin E and Ax (-E, -Ax) for 22 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate, but an extensive lipoid liver degenerative lesion was observed in 15\% of fish fed diets deficient in vitamin E. Tissue vitamin E concentrations varied in accordance with dietary vitamin E in liver, muscle, heart, plasma, brain and eye; levels were reduced to approximately 3\% in liver but only to 40\% in eye of fish fed diets deficient in vitamin E compared with those fed diets supplemented with vitamin E. An interactive sparing of Ax supplementation on tissue vitamin E concentration was observed, but only in brain. Dietary deficiency of both vitamin E and Ax significantly increased the recovery of desaturated and elongated products of both [1-(14)C] 18:3(n-3) and [1-(14)C] 20:5(n-3) in isolated hepatocytes, suggesting that conversion of fatty acids to their long-chain highly unsaturated products can be stimulated by a deficiency of lipid-soluble antioxidants. The antioxidant synergism of vitamin E and Ax was supported by their ability to reduce malondialdehyde formation in an in vitro stimulation of microsomal lipid peroxidation and to reduce plasma levels of 8-isoprostane. The results of this study suggest that both vitamin E and the carotenoid Ax have antioxidant functions in Atlantic salmon.
This article was published in J Nutr
and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access