Author(s): Sutton MA, Moncrieff JB, Fowler D
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Abstract Micrometeorological methods were applied to measure fluxes of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) to moorlands. Measurements were made in a wide variety of surface conditions and included both Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Eriophorum vaginatum L. dominated sites. NH3 was found to deposit rapidly to all the sites investigated, providing large deposition velocities (Vd, typically 10-40 mm s(-1)) and usually minimal surface resistances (rc). A small number of measurements were made in frozen conditions and suggest a possible exception to this pattern with mean rc of 50-200 s m(-1). The effect of vegetation drying was also investigated and a possible increase in rc observed, though this was small (< 10 s m(-1)). The results are interpreted in terms of the processes controlling exchange; it is shown that NH3 deposition is predominantly to the leaf surfaces and that the net NH3 compensation point approaches zero. Annual estimates show that dry deposition of NH3 is a major source of atmospheric nitrogen to moorland ecosystems. For two typical UK sites subject to background air concentrations, NH3 dry deposition is of similar magnitude to equivalent NH4+ inputs in wet deposition. In the vicinity of emission sources, NH3 dry deposition is expected to dominate inputs of atmospheric nitrogen.
This article was published in Environ Pollut
and referenced in Advances in Crop Science and Technology