Author(s): Arvanitis DA, Spandidos DA
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Abstract High-risk types of HPV express the oncoproteins, E6 and E7, that can inactivate TP53 and RB1, respectively, and thus take control of both cell cycle and apoptosis. Herein, the mRNA expression profiles of 24 G1/S checkpoint genes were analysed in cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) of the uterine cervix. In total 35 squamous cervical carcinomas, 26 high-grade SIL (HSIL), 33 low-grade SIL (LSIL) tissues, and 28 normal uterine cervix specimens as controls were assessed by RT-PCR. Five genes were found to be upregulated only in tumours, RBL2, E2F2, CDK6, CCNE1 and MYC; eight in tumours and HSILs, E2F1, E2F3, E2F5, CCND1, CDK2, CDKN1B, PCNA and POLA, and five in tumours, HSILs and LSILs, TP53, E2F4, CDKN1A, CDKN2A and DHFR. MDM2 was found to be upregulated in SIL, while RBL1 was found to be downregulated in all three groups of cases. TP73 exhibited lower levels in carcinomas; however, its exon 13-containing isoforms were increased and exon 2-containing isoforms were reduced in both cancer and HSIL. Three genes, RB1, CDK4 and CDKN2D, did not exhibit any significant alteration in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering revealed that this set of G1/S checkpoint genes was able to discriminate the total 122 samples into groups of disease and non-disease with only 8 exceptions (6.6\%). Our data suggest that deregulation of G1/S phase transition in cervical carcinogenesis is a progressive process. Certain clusters of genes are activated very early in pre-cancerous SILs while others are activated later, during malignant transformation. The ability of this array of markers to identify disease status suggests that it could be used for diagnostic purposes.
This article was published in Oncol Rep
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine