Author(s): Harvey DJ
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Abstract Carbohydrates display a large diversity of structures and their analysis presents many obstacles as the result of properties such as isomeric diversity, existence of branched structures and the lack of chromophores or fluorophores. Consequently, many analytical approaches depend on the application of chemical modifications such as hydrolysis or derivative formation. This review covers various aspects of derivatization that are used for such approaches as improving thermal stability and volatility for gas-phase analyses, introduction of fluorophores for optical detectors, introduction of charge for mass spectral analyses and attachment of bioaffinity tags for bioactivity studies. Reducing carbohydrates contain, in addition to multiple hydroxyl groups, several other sites for derivatization such as the single anomeric site that has been used in numerous methods for attaching various property-enhancing tags. Other sites are restricted to specific carbohydrates but include carboxy groups in sialic acids and amino groups in glycosylamines. All of these groups have been the targets of derivatization and this review attempts to summarise the main methods used for these various functional groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci
and referenced in Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques