Author(s): Kasiske BL, Israni AK, Snyder JJ, Camarena A COST Investi
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Abstract BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether benefits outweigh harms for routine screening and prophylactic revascularization to prevent coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic kidney transplant candidates. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot feasibility study with prospective observational data collection and patient interviews. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients referred for kidney and/or pancreas transplant at 26 major transplant centers in the United States. PREDICTORS: Older age, diabetes, prior cardiovascular disease, and multiple traditional CAD risk factors. OUTCOMES: Eligibility and willingness to participate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study the effect of CAD screening on major adverse cardiac events. MEASUREMENTS: Patients who would be candidates for a hypothetical RCT of CAD screening were interviewed and asked if they would participate in such a trial. Sample size for the trial was estimated using data for Medicare patients in the US Renal Data System with major adverse cardiac events as the primary end point. RESULTS: Of consecutive eligible patients, CAD evaluation was not indicated in 398 (24\%), already completed before referral in 602 (36\%), and pending (and hence eligible for an RCT) in 665 (40\%). Of 241 interviewed, 73\% indicated they would be willing to participate in an RCT. We estimated that ~4,000 would need to be enrolled to detect a 20\% decrease in major adverse cardiac events at >80\% power at P < 0.05. LIMITATIONS: Willingness to participate in an actual clinical trial may be different from indicated in an interview. CONCLUSION: An RCT to compare the effects of routine screening for CAD versus no screening on major adverse cardiac events is feasible. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Am J Kidney Dis
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism