Author(s): Kushak RI, Nestoridi E, Lambert J, Selig MK, Ingelfinger JR,
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cytokine activation of endothelial cell monolayers is associated with cell detachment, microparticle shedding from plasma membranes, and phosphatidylserine appearance in the plasma membrane outer leaflets. While tissue factor expression on activated endothelial cells and microparticles is well documented, the contribution of detached endothelial cells to tissue factor activity is less clear. We studied tissue factor expression and the role of tissue factor pathway inhibitor on adherent and detached endothelial cells and on microparticles following endothelial cell activation with TNF-alpha. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detached endothelial cells and microparticles were obtained from cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by differential centrifugation of cell culture supernatant. For microparticle capture, an antibody directed against CD146 was used. Functional tissue factor activity was measured by chromogenic assay and tissue factor antigen by ELISA. Endothelial cell and microparticle morphology was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: After cell activation for 22 h, functional tissue factor activity was distributed as follows: 60\%, adherent endothelial cells; 35\%, detached cells; and 5\%, microparticles. Tissue factor protein followed a similar distribution. Cell detachment was 47\%. Electron microscopy demonstrated shedding of microparticles with a diameter of 0.1-0.6 mum. Cy3-annexin V revealed increased phosphatidylserine on activated adherent endothelial cells and microparticles. Pre-incubation of adherent and detached endothelial cells and microparticles with anti-tissue factor antibody blocked factor Xa production. Pre-incubation with anti-tissue factor pathway inhibitor antibody increased tissue factor activity of adherent endothelial cells 2.8-fold, detached cells 1.4-fold, and microparticles 45-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Detached endothelial cells as well as microparticles from activated endothelial cell monolayers express tissue factor activity, and this activity on microparticles is markedly inhibited by microparticle-associated tissue factor pathway inhibitor.
This article was published in Thromb Res
and referenced in Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials