Author(s): Weenink RP, Hollmann MW, Stevens MF, Kager J, van Gulik TM,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Cerebral air emboli occur as a complication of invasive medical procedures. The sensitivity of cerebral monitoring methods for the detection of air emboli is not known. This study investigates the utility of electroencephalography and non-invasively measured cerebral oxygen saturation in the detection of intracerebrovascular air. NEW METHOD: In 12 pigs oxygen saturation was continuously measured using transcranial near-infrared spectroscopy and oxygen tension was continuously measured using intraparenchymal probes. Additionally, quantitative electroencephalography and microdialysis were performed. Doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 ml of air were injected into the cerebral arterial vasculature through a catheter. RESULTS: Oxygen saturation and electroencephalography both reacted almost instantaneously on the air emboli, but were less sensitive than the intraparenchymal oxygen tension. There was reasonable correlation (ρ ranging from 0.417 to 0.898) between oxygen saturation, oxygen tension, electroencephalography and microdialysis values. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Our study is the first to demonstrate the effects of cerebral air emboli using multimodal monitoring, specifically on oxygen saturation as measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that non-invasively measured oxygen saturation and quantitative electroencephalography can detect the local effects of air emboli on cerebral oxygenation, but with reduced sensitivity as compared to intraparenchymal oxygen tension. Prospective human studies using multimodal monitoring incorporating electroencephalography and oxygen saturation should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Neurosci Methods
and referenced in Emergency Medicine: Open Access