alexa Detection of coronary artery disease with perfusion stress echocardiography using a novel ultrasound imaging agent: two Phase 3 international trials in comparison with radionuclide perfusion imaging.
Biomedical Sciences

Biomedical Sciences

Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science

Author(s): Senior R, Monaghan M, Main ML, Zamorano JL, Tiemann K,

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Abstract AIMS: To determine if perfusion stress echocardiography (PSE) with Imagify (perflubutane polymer microspheres) is comparable to stress perfusion imaging using (99m)Tc single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for coronary artery disease (CAD) detection. PSE is a novel technique for evaluating myocardial perfusion. RAMP (real-time assessment of myocardial perfusion)-1 and -2 were international, Phase 3 trials that evaluated the ability of PSE with Imagify, to detect CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chronic, stable, chest pain patients (n=662) underwent Imagify PSE and gated SPECT imaging at rest and during dipyridamole stress. Independent blinded cardiologists [three PSE readers per trial, and four SPECT readers (one for RAMP-1, three for RAMP-2)] interpreted images. CAD was defined by quantitative coronary angiography or 90-day outcome with clinical review. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using non-inferiority analysis (one-sided alpha=0.025) compared with SPECT. SPECT results for RAMP-1 and -2 were: accuracy (70\%, 67\%), sensitivity (78\%, 61\%), and specificity (64\%, 76\%). Accuracy of all six PSE readers was non-inferior to SPECT (66-71\%, P
  • DOI: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen321
  • This article was published in Eur J Echocardiogr and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science

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    • Yosef Yarden
      Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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