alexa Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis.


Family Medicine & Medical Science Research

Author(s): Kramer MS

Abstract Share this page

Abstract PIP: 43 determinants of low birth weight were analyzed from 895 published papers in the English and French literature from 1970-1984. The assessment was limited to singleton births of women living at sea level with no chronic illness; rare factors and complications of pregnancy were excluded. The 43 factors were categorized as genetic and constitutional, demographic and psychosocial, obstetric, nutritional, maternal morbidity during pregnancy, toxic exposure and antenatal care. The existence and magnitude of a causal effect on birth weight, gestational age, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation were determined by a set of methodological standards. In developed countries, the most important factor was cigarette smoking, followed by nutrition and pre-pregnancy weight. In developing countries the major determinants were racial origin, nutrition, low pre-pregnancy weight, short maternal stature, and malaria. Pre-pregnancy weight, prior premature birth or miscarriage, diethylstilbestrol exposure and smoking were major determinants of gestational duration, but the majority of prematurity was unexplained in both developed and developing countries. There is a need for future research on the effect of maternal work, prenatal care, and certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies on intrauterine growth, and the effect of genital tract infection, prenatal care, maternal employment, stress and anxiety on prematurity.
This article was published in Bull World Health Organ and referenced in Family Medicine & Medical Science Research

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version