Author(s): Krouse JH
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Inverted papillomas of the nose and sinuses are uncommon neoplasms. In the past decade there has been a trend toward the use of endoscopic surgical techniques in the management of these tumors, in contrast to the extensive open procedures recommended previously. This trend has not been without controversy, given the association of inverted papillomas with malignancy. It has been difficult to compare surgical approaches to these neoplasms, because of the absence of a uniformly applied staging system representing the extent of disease. It was the purpose of this study to develop such a system that could be easily applied in outcomes research. STUDY DESIGN: This study involved an integrated literature review and a synthesis of findings from a number of studies. METHODS: Previous and current clinical studies examining the treatment of inverted papilloma were reviewed. Findings were organized, and a staging system was framed based on this review. RESULTS: A simple, easily applied staging system was developed based on the extent of tumor involvement noted on endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and computed tomography (CT) scan evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Stage I disease is limited to the nasal cavity alone. Stage II disease is limited to the ethmoid sinuses and medial and superior portions of the maxillary sinuses. Stage III disease involves the lateral or inferior aspects of the maxillary sinuses or extension into the frontal or sphenoid sinuses. Stage IV disease involves tumor spread outside the confines of the nose and sinuses, as well as any malignancy.
This article was published in Laryngoscope
and referenced in Otolaryngology: Open Access