Author(s): Doi R, Mano T, Masuyama T, Yamamoto K, Doi Y
Objective: There are two phenotypes of heart failure, systolic failure and isolated diastolic heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. Although isolated diastolic heart failure frequently occurs, there are only models for diastolic dysfunction unassociated with heart failure and models with overt diastolic heart failure have not been established. We attempted to develop two different models, i.e. diastolic and systolic failure models, based on hypertension. Materials and methods: Dahl salt-sensitive rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet from 7 weeks old (7-week starting group) or 8 weeks old (8-week starting group). As an age-matched control, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were consistently placed on normal chow. In these rats, echocardiogram was serially recorded, followed by hemodynamic and histological studies. Results: The 7-week starting rats showed a steep elevation in blood pressure and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy, and fell into overt heart failure at approximately 19 weeks. The development of heart failure was not associated with a decrease in left ventricular midwall fractional shortening or an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic dimension as compared with the age-matched control, which mimics the characteristics of clinically observed isolated diastolic heart failure. The 8-week starting rats showed a gradual rise in blood pressure and less progressive left ventricular hypertrophy, and fell into heart failure at approximately 26 weeks with a decrease in mid-wall fractional shortening and an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Hemodynamic and histological studies at failing stage revealed comparable elevation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and comparable left ventricular fibrosis in both groups. Conclusion: These two different models of overt heart failure may be useful as models of isolated diastolic heart failure and systolic heart failure based on the same hypertensive heart disease, respectively, and may contribute to discrimination of the mechanisms of the development of the two different phenotypes of heart failure.