alexa Development of synovial joints.
Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Journal of Glycobiology

Author(s): Archer CW, Dowthwaite GP, FrancisWest P

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Synovial joints arise through two main processes. In long bone elements, cartilaginous differentiation occurs across the locations of the prospective joints that then segment secondarily. This process occurs through the development of a noncartilaginous region known as the interzone. The interzone becomes an important signaling center to the opposing elements, which can regulate growth through such factors as GDF-5. The interzone also expresses bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists, such as noggin. Overexpression of BMPs, or the loss of noggin leads to joint fusions. The interzone also expresses Wnt-14, which appears to be specific for this region in the developing anlagen, and regulates its nonchondrogenic nature. Cavitation of the joint follows, driven by selective high-level synthesis of hyaluronan by interzone cells and presumptive synovial cells. In addition, as the interzone disperses during cavity enlargement, data are now accruing that suggest that both the synovium and articular cartilage develop from this population. Finally, the development of articular cartilage progresses through appositional growth driven by a progenitor/stem cell subpopulation that resides in the articular surface. The individual elements of the skeleton are connected together at regions termed joints or articulations. Classically, there are three broad categories of joints: immovable joints (syntharthroses); mixed articulations, in which the range of movement is limited (amphiarthroses); and the movable, or synovial, joints (diarthroses). This review concentrates on the development of the synovial joints. This article was published in Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today and referenced in Journal of Glycobiology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • 2nd International Conference on Biochemistry
    Sep 21-22, 2017 Macau, Hong Kong
  • International Conference on Glycobiology
    Oct 02-04, 2017 Atlanta, USA
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords