Author(s): MridaVelasco JA, SnchezMontesinos I, EspnFerra J, MridaVelasco JR, RodrguezVzquez JF,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published on the development of the human knee joint, but scant attention has been given to the development of the knee joint ligaments. The only elements that have received much attention are the cruciate ligaments and their relationships with the synovial membrane. METHODS: We summarize our observations on the development of the knee joint ligaments in 50 serially sectioned human embryonic and fetal lower limbs (26 embryos and 24 fetuses). RESULTS: The patellar ligament begins to form in O'Rahilly stage 20, with the muscle fibers of the quadriceps muscle being attached inferiorly to the tibial tuberosity. The cruciate ligaments (beginning with the posterior) arise from the articular interzone in O'Rahilly stage 21. Subsequently, with the organization of the Wrisberg's meniscofemoral ligament, in week 10 of development, the cruciate ligament system is completed. The lateral collateral ligament begins to form in O'Rahilly stage 23, and from its first appearance it is independent of the knee joint capsule. At this time, development of the tendon of the popliteus muscle begins. The medial collateral ligament begins to develop in week 9 of development as a condensation of the joint capsule. Two weeks later, the intra-articular pad of fat begins to form from mesenchymal tissue below the patella and between the cruciate and the patellar ligaments. With the organization of the suprapatellar bursa in week 14 of development, knee joint development is complete. CONCLUSIONS: The morphogenetic time table of the knee joint ligaments was established.
This article was published in Anat Rec
and referenced in Journal of Glycobiology