Author(s): Kempster SL, Belteki G, Forhead AJ, Fowden AL, Catalano RD,
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Abstract The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex whose formation is triggered when a NOD-like receptor binds a pathogen ligand, resulting in activated caspase-1, which converts certain interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33) to their active forms. There is currently no information on regulation of this system around the time of birth. We employed transcript profiling of fetal rat intestinal and lung RNA at embryonic days 16 (E16) and 20 (E20) with out-of-sample validation using quantitative RT-PCR. Transcript profiling and quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that transcripts of core components of the NOD-like receptor Nlrp6 inflammasome (Nlrp6, Pycard, Caspase-1) and one of its substrates, IL-18, were increased at E20 compared with E16 in fetal intestine and not lung. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased Pycard in intestinal epithelium. Western blotting demonstrated that IL-18 was undetectable at E16, clearly detectable at E20 in its inactive form, and detectable postnatally in both its inactive and active form. Dramatic upregulation of IL-18 was also observed in the fetal sheep jejunum in late gestation (P = 0.006). Transcription factor binding analysis of the rat array data revealed an overrepresentation of nuclear transcription factor binding sites peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and retinoid X receptor-α and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor 1 in the region 1,000 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, more than doubled levels of NLRP6 mRNA in human intestinal epithelial (Caco2) cells. These observations provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, linking activity of PPAR-γ to expression of a NOD-like receptor and adds to a growing body of evidence linking pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system and intestinal colonization.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy