Author(s): Ma D, Hossain M, Rajakumaraswamy N, Arshad M, Sanders RD,
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Abstract Which of the three alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes of alpha2A, alpha2B, or alpha2C mediates the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine was examined in cell culture as well as in an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia. Dexmedetomidine dose-dependently attenuated neuronal injury (IC50=83+/-1 nM) in neuronal-glial co-cultures derived from wild-type mice; contrastingly, dexmedetomidine did not exert neuroprotection in injured cells from transgenic mice (D79N) expressing dysfunctional alpha2A-adrenoceptors. An alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype-preferring antagonist 2-[(4,5-Dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole maleate (BRL44408) completely reversed dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection, while other subtype-preferring antagonists 2-[2-(4-(2-Methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,3-(2H,4H)-isoquinolindione dihydrochloride (ARC239) (alpha2B) and rauwolscine (alpha2C) had no significant effect on the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine in neuronal-glial co-cultures. Dexmedetomidine also protected against exogenous glutamate induced cell death in pure cortical neuron cultures assessed by flow cytometry and reduced both apoptotic and necrotic types of cell death. Likewise this neuroprotective effect was antagonised by BRL44408 but not ARC239 or rauwolscine. Dexmedetomidine exhibited dose-dependent protection against brain matter loss in vivo (IC50=40.3+/-6.1 microg/kg) and improved the neurologic functional deficit induced by the hypoxic-ischemic insult. Protection by dexmedetomidine against hypoxic-ischemic-induced brain matter loss was reversed by the alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype-preferring antagonist BRL44408; neither ARC239 nor rauwolscine reversed the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine in vivo. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine is mediated by activation of the alpha2A adrenergic receptor subtype.
This article was published in Eur J Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology