Author(s): Pinto ME, Villena JE, Villena AE
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adult Peruvian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we reviewed clinical charts of type 2 diabetic patients with DKA admitted to Cayetano Heredia Hospital between 2001 and 2005 for data on demographics, previous treatment, previous hospital admissions for DKA, family history of diabetes, precipitating factors, hospital course, mortality, and insulin use 3 and 6 months after the index DKA episode. Patients older than 18 years who had confirmed DKA were included. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. RESULTS: We report on 53 patients with DKA for whom complete clinical and laboratory data were available. Of the 53 patients, 39 (74\%) were men; mean age (+/- SD) was 45 +/- 12 years; and 22 (42\%) had no previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The following mean (+/- SD) laboratory values were obtained at DKA diagnosis: glucose, 457 +/- 170 mg/dL; pH, 7.15 +/- 0.14; bicarbonate, 7.73 +/- 6 mEq/L; and anion gap, 24.45 +/- 7.44 mEq/L. Of the 53 DKA episodes, 35 (66\%) were severe (arterial pH <7.0 and/or serum bicarbonate <10 mEq/L). The following precipitating factors were discerned: discontinuation of treatment in 21 (40\%), infections in 16 (30\%), intercurrent illness in 3 (6\%), and no identifiable cause in 13 (25\%). Mortality rate was 0\%. Three and 6 months after the index DKA episode, insulin was used by 65\% and 56\% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: In countries with a low incidence of type 1 diabetes, DKA is frequently reported in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, 42\% of patients had new-onset disease. Most DKA episodes were severe and were related to infection or noncompliance with treatment.
This article was published in Endocr Pract
and referenced in Diabetes Case Reports