Author(s): Zilker T, Zilker T
Abstract Share this page
Abstract In the second part of this review of mushroom poisonings, the syndromes with intermediate and long lag-times are discussed. They include the coprinus-, phalloides-, gyromitrin- and the orellanus syndrome. The coprinus syndrome occurs whenever alcohol is consumed after a meal containing coprine. The lag-time varies according to the amount and time of alcohol intake. It is very similar to the disulfiram syndrome which is known from the adverse therapy of alcoholism. The lag-time of the phalloides syndrome varies between 7 and 24 hours. It starts with massive gastroenteritis followed by hepatopathia which can lead to hepatic coma and kidney failure. The phalloides syndrome is caused by the amatoxins of the death caps, which inhibit the RNA Polymerase B in the nucleus of the liver cell. The gyromitrin syndrome exhibits also a delayed onset. The hepatotoxicity and the nephrotoxicity are less severe than in the phalloides syndrome. The first metabolite of gyromitrin monomethylhydrazin is responsible for CNS-symptoms such as delirium and convulsions. In contrast to the phalloides syndrome vomiting can be the only leading symptom in gyromitrin poisoning. The orellanus syndrome has the most delayed onset of all mushroom poisonings with 1-3 weeks. It should be thought of in all cases of kidney insufficiency of unknown origin. The orellanines damage the kidney and induce all degrees of kidney insufficiency according to the amount of ingested poison. Terminal kidney failure which requires hemodialysis treatment can occur in severe cases.
This article was published in Leber Magen Darm
and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology