alexa Diagnostic and management challenges for childhood tuberculosis in the era of HIV.
Immunology

Immunology

International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy

Author(s): Marais BJ, Graham SM, Cotton MF, Beyers N, Marais BJ, Graham SM, Cotton MF, Beyers N

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The diagnosis and management of childhood tuberculosis (TB) pose substantial challenges in the era of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The highest TB incidences and HIV infection prevalences are recorded in sub-Saharan Africa, and, as a consequence, children in this region bear the greatest burden of TB/HIV infection. The tuberculin skin test (TST), which is the standard marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in immunocompetent children, has poor sensitivity when used in HIV-infected children. Novel T cell assays may offer higher sensitivity and specificity than the TST, but these tests still fail to make the crucial distinction between latent M. tuberculosis infection and active disease and are limited by cost considerations. Symptom-based diagnostic approaches are less helpful in HIV-infected children, because of the difficulty of differentiating TB-related symptoms from those caused by other HIV-associated conditions. Knowing the HIV infection status of all children with suspected TB is helpful because it improves clinical management. HIV-infected children are at increased risk of developing active disease after TB exposure/infection, which justifies the use of isoniazid preventive therapy once active TB has been excluded. The higher mortality and relapse rates noted among HIV-infected children with active TB who are receiving standard TB treatment highlight the need for further research to define optimal treatment regimens. HIV-infected children should also receive appropriate supportive care, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and antiretroviral therapy, if indicated. Despite the difficulties experienced in resource-limited countries, the management of children with TB/HIV infection could be vastly improved by better implementation of readily available interventions. This article was published in J Infect Dis and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version