Author(s): Yang CS, Brady JF, Hong JY
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Abstract The levels and activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes are influenced by a variety of factors, including the diet. In this article, the effects of selected non-nutritive dietary chemicals, macronutrients, micronutrients, and ethanol on cytochromes P450 and xenobiotic metabolism are reviewed in the light of our current understanding of the multiplicity and substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although the mechanisms of action of several dietary chemicals on specific cytochrome P450 isozymes have been established, those for macro- and micronutrients are largely unknown. It is known, however, that specific nutrients may have varied effects on different cytochrome P450 forms and thus may affect the metabolism of various drugs differently. Nutritional deficiencies generally cause lowered rates of xenobiotic metabolism. In certain cases, such as thiamin deficiency and mild riboflavin deficiency, however, enhanced rates of metabolism of xenobiotics were observed. The effects of dietary modulation of xenobiotic metabolism on chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity are discussed.
This article was published in FASEB J
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine