Author(s): Miller WC, Niederpruem MG, Wallace JP, Lindeman AK
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the relationships among the specific components of dietary fat and carbohydrate and body fatness in lean and obese adults. DESIGN: Body composition determination was performed on each subject by hydrostatic weighing at residual volume. Subsequently, the individual components of dietary fat and carbohydrate were examined relative to body fatness using a 3-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 23 lean (11.1 +/- 2.9\% body fat) men, 23 obese (29.2 +/- 3.8\% body fat) men, 17 lean (16.7 +/- 3.3\% body fat) women, and 15 obese (42.7 +/- 3.9\% body fat) women who volunteered for free diet and body composition analyses. Inclusion criteria were 15\% body fat for lean men, 25\% for obese men, 20\% for lean women, and 35\% for obese women. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Group comparisons for dietary variables were made with a multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: No differences were found between lean and obese subjects for energy intake or total sugar intake, but obese subjects derived a greater portion of their energy from fat (33.1 +/- 2.6\% and 36.3 +/- 2.3\% for obese men and women, respectively, vs 29.1 +/- 1.3\% and 29.6 +/- 2.0\%, lean men and women, respectively). Percent of fat intake for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats was not different among groups. Obese subjects derived a greater percentage of their sugar intake from added sugars than lean subjects (38.0 +/- 3.5\% vs 25.2 +/- 2.0\%, respectively, for men; 47.9 +/- 8.0\% vs 31.4 +/- 3.4\%, respectively, for women). Dietary fiber was lower for obese men (20.9 +/- 1.8 g) and women (15.7 +/- 1.1 g) than for lean men (27.0 +/- 1.8 g) and women (22.7 +/- 2.1 g). APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is maintained primarily by a diet that is high in fat and added sugar and relatively low in fiber. Alterations in diet composition rather than energy intake may be a weight control strategy for overweight adults.
This article was published in J Am Diet Assoc
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine