Author(s): Park EJ, Suh M, Thomson B, Ma DW, Ramanujam K,
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Abstract Our previous study demonstrated that feeding ganglioside increased total ganglioside content while decreasing cholesterol and caveolin-1 content in developing rat intestinal lipid microdomains. Cholesterol or caveolin depletion in membranes inhibits inflammatory signaling by disrupting microdomain structure. We hypothesized that dietary ganglioside-induced reduction in cholesterol content will reduce proinflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa after acute exposure to bacterial endotoxin. Weanling rats were fed semipurified diets with 0.1\% (wt/wt of total fat) gangliosides (treatment) or without ganglioside (control). After 2 weeks of feeding, half of animals from each diet group were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4, intraperitoneal, 3 mg/kg body weight) to induce acute gut inflammation. Intestinal mucosa and blood were collected after 6 h. The effect of dietary ganglioside on proinflammatory mediators including cholesterol, platelet-activating factor, prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was determined in inflamed mucosa and blood. Feeding animals the control diet increased cholesterol content in intestinal lipid microdomains by 92\% after LPS injection compared with saline injection. Animals fed the ganglioside diet significantly decreased cholesterol content in lipid microdomains by 60\% compared with animals fed the control diet. Feeding animals the ganglioside diet increased total ganglioside content by 90\% while decreasing platelet-activating factor content by 45\% in the inflamed mucosa by acute systemic exposure to LPS compared with animals fed the control diet. When animals were fed the ganglioside diet, the levels of prostaglandin E2, LTB4, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha were lower in inflamed mucosa, and LTB4, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha were decreased in plasma by 41\%, 58\%, and 55\% compared with control animals, respectively. The present study demonstrates that dietary gangliosides inhibit proinflammatory signals in the intestine and blood induced by acute inflammation of LPS and suggests therapeutic potential in the treatment and management of acute local and systemic inflammatory diseases.
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