Author(s): Gillingham LG, Harding SV, Rideout TC, Yurkova N, Cunnane SC,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Desaturation of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to omega-3 (n-3) long-chain fatty acids (FAs) is mediated through FA desaturases (FADS1-FADS2) and may be influenced by dietary FA composition. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of diets enriched in flaxseed oil (FXCO) or high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO) compared with a Western diet (WD) and FADS1-FADS2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma FAs and [U-(13)C]ALA metabolism. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, 36 hyperlipidemic subjects consumed 3 isoenergetic diets enriched in FXCO (20.6 g ALA/d), HOCO (2.4 g ALA/d), or WD (1.3 g ALA/d) for 4 wk. On day 27, blood was sampled 0, 24, and 48 h after the subjects (n = 26) consumed 45 mg [U-(13)C]ALA. The subjects were genotyped for 4 FADS SNPs. RESULTS: FXCO increased (P < 0.001) plasma ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), with no change in DHA compared with the HOCO or WD diets. At 24 and 48 h, [U-(13)C]ALA recovered as plasma [(13)C]EPA and [(13)C]DPA were lower (P < 0.001) after the FXCO diet than after the HOCO and WD diets. No change in [(13)C]DHA was observed between diets. Minor allele homozygotes of rs174545, rs174583, rs174561, and rs174537 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma EPA, arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/ALA, and AA/linoleic acid compositions and lower (P < 0.05) plasma [(13)C]EPA enrichment at 24 and 48 h in comparison with carriers of the major allele after all diets. SNPs were not associated with plasma composition of DHA or [(13)C]DHA enrichment. CONCLUSION: An increase in ALA intake resulting in increased plasma EPA composition may be cardioprotective, especially in minor allele homozygotes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00927199.
This article was published in Am J Clin Nutr
and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences