Author(s): Tan TC, Fang H, Magder LS, Petri MA, Tan TC, Fang H, Magder LS, Petri MA
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are thought to be similar to female patients with SLE, but key clinical characteristics may differ. Comparisons were made between male and female patients with SLE in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. METHODS: A total of 1979 patients in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 157 men (66.2\% white, 33.8\% African American) and 1822 women (59.8\% white, 40.2\% African American). The mean followup was 6.02 years (range 0-23.73). Men were more likely than women to have disability, hypertension, thrombosis, and renal, hematological, and serological manifestations. Men were more likely to be diagnosed at an older age and to have a lower education level. Women were more likely to have malar rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, alopecia, Raynaud's phenomenon, or arthralgia. Men were more likely than women to have experienced end organ damage including neuropsychiatric, renal, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular disease, and myocardial infarction, and to have died. In general, differences between males and females were more numerous and striking in whites, especially with respect to lupus nephritis, abnormal serologies, and thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there are major clinical differences between male and female patients with SLE. Differences between male and female patients also depend on ethnicity. Future SLE studies will need to consider both ethnicity and gender to understand these differences.
This article was published in J Rheumatol
and referenced in Journal of Forensic Research