alexa Differences in maternal circulating fatty acid composition and dietary fat intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus or mild gestational hyperglycemia.


Internal Medicine: Open Access

Author(s): Chen X, Scholl TO, Leskiw M, Savaille J, Stein TP

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Abstract OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between maternal circulating fatty acids (FAs) and dietary FA intake in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n = 49), women with hyperglycemia less severe than GDM (impaired glucose challenge test [GCT] non-GDM; n = 80), and normal control subjects (n = 98). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control design was nested within a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women. Fasting concentrations of serum total FAs (enzymatic assay) and FA composition (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were determined at entry and the third trimester. Dietary fat intake data were obtained from 24-h recalls. RESULTS: There was a graded increase among groups (control subjects, impaired GCT non-GDM, and GDM) during the third trimester for total FAs and individual FAs, including myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (P for trend <0.03 to P < 0.001). Similar relationships were observed at entry in total FAs and for four FAs (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids). Women with impaired GCT non-GDM with BMI >or=25 kg/m(2) had the highest levels of FAs at entry, whereas women with GDM with BMI >or=25 kg/m(2) had the highest levels during the third trimester, and all grouped FAs were significantly different from lean women with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). Dietary intake of polyunsaturated FAs was decreased, but saturated FAs were increased in GDM compared with impaired GCT non-GDM or control subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in fat metabolism are present in both GDM and impaired GCT non-GDM women. Reducing pregravid weight and altering diet might prevent the associated elevation of circulating FAs.
This article was published in Diabetes Care and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access

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