Author(s): Jongsma J, Oomen MH, Noordzij MA, Van Weerden WM, Martens GJ, , Jongsma J, Oomen MH, Noordzij MA, Van Weerden WM, Martens GJ,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are androgen-independent cells and secrete growth-modulating peptide hormones via a regulated secretory pathway (RSP). We studied NE differentiation after long-term androgen withdrawal in the androgen-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PC-310. METHODS: Tumor-bearing nude mice were killed at 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, 21, 47, 84, and 154 days after castration. The half-life of the PC-310 tumor was 10 days, with a stable residual tumor volume of 30--40\% after 21 days and longer periods of androgen deprivation. RESULTS: Proliferative activity and prostate-specific antigen serum levels decreased to zero after castration, whereas cell-cycle arrest was manifested by increased p27(kip1) expression. A temporary downregulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression was noted after androgen deprivation. The expression of chromogranin A, secretogranin III, and secretogranin V (7B2) increased 5 days after castration and later. Subsequently, pro-hormone convertase 1 and peptidyl alpha--amidating monooxygenase as well as vascular endothelial growth factor were expressed from 7 days after castration on. Finally, such growth factors as gastrin-releasing peptide and serotonin were expressed in a small part of the NE cells 21 days after castration, but strong expression was induced late during androgen deprivation, that is, 84 and 154 days after castration, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation of the NE-differentiated PC-310 model induced the formation of NE-differentiated AR(minus sign) and non-NE AR(+) tumor residues. The NE-differentiated cells actively produced growth factors via an RSP that may lead to hormone-refractory disease. The dormant non-NE AR(+) tumor cells were shown to remain androgen sensitive even after long-term androgen deprivation. In the PC-310 xenograft, time-dependent NE differentiation and subsequent maturation were induced after androgen depletion. The androgen-dependent PC-310 xenograft model constitutes an excellent model for studying the role of NE cells in the progression of clinical prostate cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This article was published in Prostate
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy