Author(s): Jensik PJ, Arbogast LA
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Abstract The classical progesterone receptors (PRs) are expressed in some hypothalamic dopaminergic and brainstem noradrenergic neurones. Progesterone influences prolactin and luteinising hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland, in part by regulating the activity of these catecholaminergic neurones. The present study aimed to determine the effects of PRs on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter activity. When CAD, SK-N-SH and CV-1 cells were transfected with TH promoter constructs and PR-A or PR-B expression vectors, progesterone treatment caused three- to six-fold increases in TH-9.0 kb promoter activity in PR-B expressing cells, although only a modest increase or no change in PR-A expressing cells. Using CAD cells, deletional analysis mapped the site of PR action to the -1403 to -1304 bp region of the TH promoter. Mutational analysis of putative regulatory sequences in this region indicated that multiple DNA elements are required for complete PR-B transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were unable to demonstrate direct PR-B binding to TH promoter DNA sequences. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated PR-B was recruited to the TH promoter. Two different PR-B DNA binding domain mutants had opposing effects on PR-B-mediated TH promoter activation. A GS to AA mutation located in the p-box of the first zinc finger of PR-B inhibited progesterone transactivation of the TH promoter, whereas a C to A mutation in the zinc finger increased transactivation. PR-A was able to inhibit PR-B transactivation in a dose-dependent manner, although the degree of PR-A inhibition was dependent on the TH promoter deletion construct. These data indicate that ligand-bound PR-B is recruited to DNA elements in the TH promoter and acts as a transcriptional activator of the TH gene, and also that changes in the ratio of PR-A to PR-B may affect the ability of progesterone to increase TH expression. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
This article was published in J Neuroendocrinol
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science