Author(s): McCully JD, Wakiyama H, Hsieh YJ, Jones M, Levitsky S
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Abstract Necrosis and apoptosis differentially contribute to myocardial injury. Determination of the contribution of these processes in ischemia-reperfusion injury would allow for the preservation of myocardial tissue. Necrosis and apoptosis were investigated in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 47) subjected to 0 (Control group), 5 (GI-5), 10 (GI-10), 15 (GI-15), 20 (GI-20), 25 (GI-25), and 30 min (GI-30) of global ischemia (GI) and 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial injury was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), bax, bcl2, poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase-3, -8, and -9 cleavage and activity, Fas ligand (FasL), and Fas-activated death domain (FADD). The contribution of apoptosis was determined separately (n = 42) using irreversible caspase-3, -8, and -9 inhibitors. Left ventricular peak developed pressure (LVPDP) and systolic shortening (SS) were significantly decreased and infarct size and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased (P < 0.05 vs. Control group) at GI-20, GI-25, and GI-30. Proapoptotic bax, PARP cleavage, and caspase-3 and -9 cleavage and activity were apparent at GI-5 to GI-30. Fas, FADD, and caspase-8 cleavage and activity were unaltered. Irreversible inhibition of caspase-3 and -9 activity significantly decreased (P < 0.05) infarct size at GI-25 and GI-30 but had no effect on LVPDP or SS. Myocardial injury results from a significant increase in both necrosis and apoptosis (P < 0.05 vs. Control group) evident by TUNEL, TTC staining, and caspase activity at GI-20. Intrinsic proapoptotic activation is evident early during ischemia but does not significantly contribute to infarct size before GI-25. The contribution of necrosis to infarct size at GI-20, GI-25, and GI-30 is significantly greater than that of apoptosis. Apoptosis is significantly decreased by caspase inhibition during early reperfusion, but this protection does not improve immediate postischemic functional recovery.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research