alexa Differential distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase fibers on small and large neurons in layer II of anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenic brain.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Benes FM, Todtenkopf MS, Taylor JB

Abstract Share this page

Abstract A series of recent postmortem investigations of the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenic brain have suggested that there may be a loss and/or impairment of inhibitory interneurons in layer II. It has been postulated that changes of this type could secondarily result in a relative increase of dopaminergic inputs to GABAergic interneurons. To test this hypothesis, an immunoperoxidase technique was developed to extensively and reliably visualize tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) varicose fibers in human postmortem cortex. This method has been applied to the anterior cingulate (ACCx; Brodmann area 24) and prefrontal (PFCx: Brodmann area 10) cortices from a cohort of 15 normal control and 10 schizophrenic cases. The number of TH-IR varicosities in contact with large neurons (LN), small neurons (SN), and neuropil (NPL) was blindly analyzed using a computer-assisted microscopic technique. There was no significant difference in density of TH-IR varicosities in apposition with either LN or SN cell bodies observed in either ACCx or PFCx of schizophrenics when compared to normal controls. The density of varicosities was significantly reduced in NPL of layers V and VI in ACCx, but 2 neuroleptic-free cases did not show this change, suggesting that these decreases of TH-IR varicosities may be related to antipsychotic effects on corticostriatal projection cells in this region. When the density of TH-IR varicosities on SNs was compared to that observed on LNs, both groups showed a higher density on SNs. In ACCx, this pattern was much more pronounced for the schizophrenic group, particularly in layer II where the density on SNs was three times higher than that for LNs (P = 0.01). Unlike the changes in layer V, this latter change in layer II showed no relationship to neuroleptic exposure. There was a positive correlation between age and the density of TH-IR varicosities on SNs of layer II in ACCx; however, the patients were younger than the controls and would have been expected to show a lower density, rather than a higher one, if age considerations had accounted for the group differences. Overall, the results reported here suggest that there are no gross differences in the distribution of TH-IR varicosities in various laminae of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In the anterior cingulate region, however, there may be a significant shift in the distribution of TH-IR varicosities from large neurons to small neurons that occurs selectively in layer II of schizophrenic subjects. Using size criteria, the majority of small neurons are likely nonpyramidal, while the majority of large neurons are predominantly pyramidal in nature. Taken together with other accumulating evidence of preferential abnormalities in this lamina of the cingulate region, the findings reported here are consistent with a model of schizophrenia in which a subtle "miswiring" of ventral tegmental inputs may result in a relative, though not absolute, hyperdopaminergic state with respect to an impaired population of GABAergic interneurons. This article was published in Synapse and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords